Most of us, at one point or another, will hear brief noises in our ears that disappear quickly. This is tinnitus, a sound that comes from within and usually cannot be heard by anyone else nearby.


Persistent tinnitus is a common symptom in the general population. About ten percent of the population hear it all of the time and one percent are sufficiently distressed about it to seek help.


The noise is described in a variety of ways: buzzing, rumbling, hissing, and ringing are common descriptions. Occasionally it is a pulsating noise.

Causes of tinnitus

Tinnitus is not a diagnosis. Instead, it is a symptom of an underlying problem. For our course in Swansea the following diseases are associated with tinnitus:


  1. Hearing loss – any cause including presbyacusis, glue ear, acoustic neuroma

  2. Otitis externa

  3. Wax

  4. Acute otitis media

  5. Perforations

  6. Cholesteatoma

  7. Ménière’s disease

  8. Labyrinthitis

Tinnitus is associated with other conditions and drug usage too:


  1. Temporomandibular joint problems

  2. Head and neck injuries

  3. Antibiotic usage

  4. Loud noise exposure


Pulsating tinnitus is associated with acoustic neuromas, vascular abnormalities in the head and neck, anaemia, pregnancy and thyrotoxicosis.


What problem does the symptom cause for the patient?

For the majority, tinnitus is experienced but causes no suffering. It’s a noise that is there but that has no impact. For a minority, it has dramatic effects and causes sleep disruption, depression and anxiety, frustration, irritability, and poor concentration. It can interfere with social and leisure activities, disrupt family relationships and cause fatigue.


While it causes suffering it does not cause disability or handicap.


How is it treated?


While tinnitus cannot be switched off by drugs or therapy its impact can be significantly lessened through a combination of approaches and the majority of patients do very well.


For patients with idiopathic bilateral tinnitus, we start by reassuring the patient that the tinnitus does not imply a serious underlying disease. Generally, the impact of the noise will lessen (through central adaptation to the sound). A simple step to assist with sleep is to play music at night either via a radio or pillow speaker.


For those who need more, sound generators, hearing aids and cognitive-behavioural therapy have benefits. Management of any underlying psychiatric disease is also helpful.


Unilateral tinnitus


Should a patient attend with tinnitus on one side they are referred for MRI scanning to exclude acoustic neuroma from the diagnosis. The chance of a patient referred with unilateral tinnitus having an acoustic neuroma is about 1-2% in Swansea.

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